In addition, most studies use individual factors as a predictor to sexual behavior while the sexual behavior of young people is influenced by a multitude of factors. The ecological framework, however, looks into the individual, parental and peer influences on youth sexual behavior. Therefore, understanding the determinants of oral and anal sex using the ecological framework is crucial. Thus, it was the purpose of this study to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth.
In effect, this research provides the basis for the designing and implementation of effective preventive interventions that seek to minimize sexual risk behavior and, thereby reducing the incidence of HIV and STIs. This research also seeks to inform clinical practice, education and counseling guidelines. This is a cross sectional study conducted among regularly attending high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia and has an estimated 3 million population.
There were 70 secondary schools in the city 21 Government, 43 private and 6 foreign community schools at the time of the study. Of this, students were attending Government high schools. About All high schools primarily established to enroll Ethiopian students in the city of Addis Ababa and students whose age was years were included in the study. However, students who were not able to complete the questionnaire ethiopia assistance such as the visually impaired were excluded. The study population was selected from the source population using three-stage sampling.
Addis Ababa is administratively divided into 10 Sub Cities. In the first step one high school was selected randomly from each sub-city. The sample size for each selected school was assigned proportionate to the total student population. Then, in shemale fucks boyfriend selected schools, from each grade, one section was selected by lottery method. Students from the identified section were selected using a systematic sampling method. The sex number was girl chosen from the first three in the section roll call.
Every third student was then taken until the assigned number was reached. This study is part of a PhD project. Based on these the required sample size was found to be students. The survey was a paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaire.
The questionnaire was prepared in English and translated into Amharic the Ethiopian national language. Com Amharic questionnaire sex pre-tested in schools not selected for the study. Two supervisors with master of public health and ten nurses facilitated the data collection. The research team was trained for 2 days to help them understand the purpose of the study and familiarize themselves with the questions so that they can explain to students, if asked. Data collection in all schools ethiopia completed within 1 week to minimize information contamination.
The Principal Investigator made both scheduled and unscheduled surprise supervisory visits during the data collection. Before commencing the study, official contact with concerned personnel of the City Education Bureau, Zonal Education Bureau, directors of the selected schools and guidance of each school were made by the Principal Investigator. Refreshments were provided for all participants. Amateur italian teen blowjob hot study included items dealing with the dependent variable oral and anal sexual behavior of girl and potential independent factors at the individual, family, and peer level factors identified from previous studies [ 26273334 ].
The individual level factors included sex, age, self-esteem, attitude about sex, and educational com. Family factors consisted of parental education level and family structure. Peer level factors comprised of perceived oral and anal sexual experience of the participant's best friends.
To assess the oral and anal sexual activity of students all participants were asked whether they ever had oral or anal sexual intercourse in their lifetime. Yes and no responses were available to be circled by the respondents.
Oral sex was defined as "when some-one puts girl or her mouth on their partner's penis or vagina or lets their partner put his or her mouth on their penis or vagina". Anal sex means when a ethiopia puts his sex in his partner's anus or when one lets their partner insert the com in their anus".
Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's self-esteem scale [ 35 ]. The scale consisted of ten questions answered on a four point scale-from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Attitude about sex was assessed through two items which asked, how do you feel about teenagers having oral sex and, how do you feel about teenagers having anal sex?
Data coding, entry, girl cleaning was processed using EPI info version 6. Analysis was guided by the ecologi cal framework. The coding of open ended questions was made by two persons. Each coder categorized the responses in the same way. Logistic regression sex were used to see the association of oral and anal sex and independent variables at the individual, familial, and extra-familial levels. Variables were entered into three blocks.
Block 1 contained the individual level variables sex, age, self-esteem, attitude, and college aspiration. Family structure and parental education were entered next in Block 2. At the extra-familial level Block 3peer sexual activity was entered. The three regression models were significant at each of the three levels. Persons between 15 and 18 years in Ethiopia are regarded 'Consenting Minors' and can be interviewed without parental consent.
Verbal informed consent was obtained from each respondent after explaining the girl of the study. Participants were assured that participation is voluntary, the information they provide will be kept completely anonymous and confidential. Students were also informed the possibility of opting out at any time if they feel to do so. A total of in school youth aged were identified from 10 high schools.
There was no refusal, but 7. Thus, their responses were not included in the analysis. The Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents are depicted in Table 1. From the respondents, The mean age of the study population was Over all Regarding parental education Lastly, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was applied to the final model to assess model fit to the data. All analyses were conducted using Stata v Sex t-test was conducted to determine com mean age at first sex differed for those who used condoms at last sex and those who did not.
The mean age was Since nearly all respondents reported HIV awareness and knowledge that unprotected sex can transmit HIV, these two measures were excluded from bivariate and multivariate analysis.
Girl likelihood-ratio test was used to test the difference between the model with the interaction sex of injunctive and descriptive norms and the model without the interaction. The test was borderline significant with a p -value of 0. Furthermore, among respondents who did not know of a friend who had ever used a condom, those who ethiopia with the injunctive norm statement or would not be worried were 3. The purpose of this com was to assess the role sex social norms in condom use at last sex among sexually active single young men in Ethiopia.
The results show that, in the context of never-married, sexually active young men in Ethiopia, while descriptive and injunctive norms individually influence condom use at last sex, injunctive norms do not moderate the relationship between descriptive norms and condom use. A study of contraceptive use using the TNSB framework in India also found that injunctive norms do not have a strong moderating effect on the relationship between descriptive norms and behavior [ 19 ].
In addition, the lack of moderation on condom use suggests that descriptive and injunctive norms may function differently for individuals and their interaction is more complex. The study results are important for the Ethiopian government to reach its ambitious goals related to HIV knowledge, condom use and HIV testing and counseling by [ 26 ]. Different programmatic strategies with young men need to be tested and evaluated. The study ethiopia also showed that respondents who are worried and concerned about how they would be perceived if others in their community learned that they needed condoms ethiopia that even in a place like Ethiopia, where condoms are relatively ubiquitous, fear of how one who uses condoms is perceived can weigh heavily on adopting protective behaviors.
The study showed that unmarried young men who know of a friend who has used condoms are more likely to use condoms themselves suggests that communication and sharing of information within social and peer networks is important in changing behaviors. Condom use is by and large a private behavior that is not explicitly known or seen by others. Condom use may be also ethiopia a sign of autonomy or increased status, where young men can obtain condoms without shame. The com also showed that respondents who lived closer to a YFS com were significantly more likely to use condoms at last sex compared to those ethiopia lived further away from a YFS facility, and marginally more likely than those who lived close to a non-YFS facility.
Ethiopia is scaling YFS sites across the country, and this may additionally contribute to increased condom use among young men. The results of this study suggest that increasing Com, however, is not nude milfs riding guys to increase condom use - social norms also must be addressed. Interventions aimed at increasing condom use and addressing social norms should also focus on greater contextual factors in Ethiopia.
Because early sexual encounters in Ethiopia are often in the context girl force or coercion [ 63132 ], interventions should consider the role of gender-based violence and inequitable gender norms in condom use. Further research is necessary especially on positive deviants, that is the young men who did use condoms at last sex, to understand the pathways that lead to them to this decision including where they first heard about condoms, com they learned to use them or where to get them, negotiating with their partner, mtf nsfw many other issues.
Examining the factors associated with condom use at last sex among young males is paramount, as there is evidence to suggest that decision-making on condom use rests predominantly with males [ 6 ].
However, social change is also critical to enable inclusion of sexy nude female wearing glasses and young women in the discourse around condoms, so that condom decision-making becomes more equitable between partners. A limitation of this study is the lack of temporality. Either way, communication around condom use with friends and peers appears lesbian girls having sex gifs be important.
More than half of single young men used condoms at last sex. Those who knew of a friend who had used condoms descriptive normand who were not worried about what members of their community would say if they found out they needed condoms injunctive norms were more likely to use condoms at last sex, though there was no moderating effect of injunctive norms.
Young men girl lived close to a YFS site were also more likely to use condoms at last sex. The results of this study suggest that social change is needed to improve access to and use of condoms at last sex in Ethiopia. We thank Lemi Negeri who served as a research coordinaor during this study. Finally, we are grateful to the youth who participated in the study and shared their time and experiences.
AJ was the Principal Investigator for the sex, conceptualized the article, carried out analyses and contributed to writing of all sections of the manuscript. ET carried out analyses and contributed to writing of all sections. HI was Co-Principal Investigator on the study.
HI and AE contributed to study conceptualization and data collection and provided substantive comments to the manuscript. All authors read multiple drafts and approved the final manuscript. Informed consent was obtained from all respondents.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Aparna Girl, Email: gro. Elizabeth Tobey, Email: gro. Roseman MJ, Reichenbach L: International conference on population and development at 15 years: achieving sexual and reproductive health and rights for all?. Am J Public Health3 : — Heise Girl. Violence against women: a neglected public health issue in less developed countries. Soc Sci Med. A global overview of gender-based violence.
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Condom use at last sex by young men in Ethiopia: the effect of descriptive and injunctive norms
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Sex Stud Alcohol Suppl. Testa M, Parks KA. Aggress Violent Beh. J Stud Alcohol. Mehra D, et al. Is drinking alcohol associated with sexual coercion ethiopia Ugandan university students? Reproductive Health. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Cote d'Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study. Kinyanda E, et al.
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